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What is Bitcoin & How it Works

Bitcoin Basics Explained

Bitcoin is a digital currency that was created in 2009 by an unknown person or group of people using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. It operates on a decentralized network called blockchain, which is a distributed ledger that records all transactions across a network of computers.

Bitcoin is often referred to as a cryptocurrency because it uses cryptographic techniques to secure transactions and control the creation of new units. Unlike traditional currencies issued by governments, Bitcoin is not controlled by any central authority, such as a central bank. Instead, it relies on a consensus mechanism among network participants to validate transactions and maintain the integrity of the blockchain.

One of the key features of Bitcoin is its limited supply. There will only ever be 21 million bitcoins in existence, making it a deflationary asset. This scarcity, along with its decentralized nature, has led to Bitcoin being seen as a store of value and a hedge against inflation by some investors.

Bitcoin can be used for various purposes, including online transactions, remittances, and as an investment. Its price is highly volatile, and it has attracted both enthusiastic supporters and critics who debate its long-term viability and potential impact on the financial system.

How it Works

Bitcoin works through a combination of cryptographic techniques and a decentralized network. Here's a simplified overview of how it works:

  1. Blockchain: Bitcoin transactions are recorded on a public ledger called the blockchain. The blockchain consists of blocks that contain a group of transactions. Each block is linked to the previous one, creating a chain of blocks hence the name "blockchain." This chain of blocks forms a secure and transparent record of all transactions on the network.

  2. Transactions: When someone sends bitcoins to another person, they create a transaction. This transaction is broadcast to the Bitcoin network, where it is verified by nodes (computers running the Bitcoin software). The verification process involves validating the transaction against the rules of the Bitcoin protocol and ensuring that the sender has sufficient bitcoins to make the transaction.

  3. Mining: Transactions are grouped together into blocks by miners. Miners are individuals or groups of people who use powerful computers to solve complex mathematical puzzles. This process is called mining, and it serves two main purposes: validating transactions and adding them to the blockchain, and creating new bitcoins. Miners compete to solve these puzzles, and the first miner to solve a puzzle gets to add a new block of transactions to the blockchain. As a reward for their efforts, they receive newly created bitcoins and transaction fees from the transactions included in the block.

  4. Consensus: Bitcoin relies on a consensus mechanism called Proof of Work (PoW) to ensure that all transactions are valid and that there is agreement on the state of the blockchain. This means that the majority of nodes in the network must agree on the validity of transactions and the order in which they are added to the blockchain. This consensus mechanism makes it extremely difficult for anyone to manipulate the blockchain or double-spend bitcoins.

  5. Wallets: Bitcoins are stored in digital wallets, which can be software applications, hardware devices, or even paper. Each wallet has a private key, which is used to sign transactions and prove ownership of bitcoins, and a public key, which is used to receive bitcoins. When someone wants to send bitcoins, they use their wallet to sign a transaction with their private key and broadcast it to the network.

Overall, Bitcoin's design allows for secure, transparent, and decentralized transactions without the need for intermediaries like banks. It has gained popularity for its potential to provide financial freedom, especially in regions with limited access to traditional banking services.

Bitcoin TPS

TPS in the context of Bitcoin typically refers to "transactions per second," which measures the number of transactions the Bitcoin network can process in one second.

Bitcoin's current TPS is limited by its block size and block time. The Bitcoin blockchain has a block size limit of 1 megabyte (MB), which means that only a certain number of transactions can be included in each block. Additionally, Bitcoin's block time, which is the time it takes to generate a new block, is approximately 10 minutes on average.

As a result, Bitcoin's TPS is relatively low compared to some other cryptocurrencies and traditional payment systems. The exact TPS of Bitcoin can vary depending on network congestion and other factors, but it is generally estimated to be around 3-7 transactions per second.

To improve scalability and increase the number of transactions the network can handle, several proposals have been made, such as increasing the block size, implementing off-chain solutions like the Lightning Network, and exploring other consensus mechanisms. However, any changes to the Bitcoin protocol require broad consensus among the network participants, making significant changes a complex and gradual process.

Pros & Cons

Bitcoin has several pros and cons, which can vary depending on individual perspectives and use cases. Here's a general overview:


  1. Decentralization: Bitcoin operates on a decentralized network, meaning it is not controlled by any single entity, government, or organization. This decentralization can lead to greater resilience, censorship resistance, and autonomy compared to traditional financial systems.

  2. Limited Supply: Bitcoin has a capped supply of 21 million coins, making it a deflationary asset. This scarcity is designed to protect against inflation and preserve value over time.

  3. Security: Bitcoin's blockchain uses cryptographic techniques to secure transactions and prevent fraud. The decentralized nature of the network and the consensus mechanism (Proof of Work) make it highly secure against attacks.

  4. Global Access: Bitcoin can be accessed and used by anyone with an internet connection, providing financial services to unbanked or underbanked populations around the world.

  5. Transparency: The blockchain ledger is transparent and publicly accessible, allowing anyone to verify transactions and the total supply of bitcoins.


  1. Volatility: Bitcoin's price is highly volatile, which can lead to significant fluctuations in value over short periods. This volatility can make it challenging to use as a stable medium of exchange or store of value.

  2. Scalability: The Bitcoin network has faced scalability issues, leading to slow transaction processing times and higher fees during periods of high demand. This has prompted debates and proposals for scaling solutions.

  3. Environmental Impact: Bitcoin mining, which is necessary for validating transactions and securing the network, consumes a significant amount of energy. Critics argue that this energy consumption is unsustainable and contributes to environmental concerns.

  4. Regulatory Uncertainty: The regulatory environment for Bitcoin varies by country and can be uncertain or restrictive in some jurisdictions. This uncertainty can affect the adoption and use of Bitcoin in certain markets.

  5. Irreversible Transactions: Once a Bitcoin transaction is confirmed and added to the blockchain, it is irreversible. This means that if a transaction is sent to the wrong address or if there is a mistake, it cannot be easily reversed, leading to potential loss of funds.

Overall, while Bitcoin offers unique benefits such as decentralization and limited supply, it also faces challenges related to scalability, volatility, and regulatory issues that impact its widespread adoption and use.


Bitcoin, like any new technology or financial innovation, has been surrounded by controversies since its inception. Some of the key controversies associated with Bitcoin include:

  1. Volatility: Bitcoin's price is known for its extreme volatility, with sharp price fluctuations occurring over short periods. This volatility has led to concerns about its suitability as a stable store of value or medium of exchange.

  2. Energy Consumption: Bitcoin mining, the process of validating transactions and securing the network, requires a significant amount of energy. Critics argue that this energy consumption is unsustainable and contributes to environmental concerns, especially as mining operations often rely on fossil fuels.

  3. Regulatory Challenges: Bitcoin operates in a regulatory grey area in many countries, leading to uncertainty about its legal status and potential regulatory crackdowns. Some governments have imposed strict regulations or outright bans on Bitcoin and cryptocurrency activities, while others have taken a more supportive approach.

  4. Use in Illicit Activities: Bitcoin has been associated with illicit activities such as money laundering, ransomware payments, and illegal drug transactions due to its pseudonymous nature and decentralized structure. While the majority of Bitcoin transactions are legitimate, its perceived anonymity has raised concerns among regulators and law enforcement agencies.

  5. Security Risks: While Bitcoin's blockchain is considered secure, there have been instances of security breaches and thefts from cryptocurrency exchanges and wallets. These incidents have raised questions about the overall security of the Bitcoin ecosystem and the need for robust security measures.

  6. Environmental Impact: As mentioned earlier, Bitcoin mining's energy consumption has raised concerns about its environmental impact, particularly its carbon footprint. Some critics argue that the energy-intensive nature of Bitcoin mining contradicts efforts to combat climate change.

  7. Scalability: Bitcoin's scalability has been a long-standing issue, leading to slow transaction processing times and high fees during periods of network congestion. This has prompted debates and proposals for scaling solutions, such as increasing the block size or implementing off-chain solutions like the Lightning Network.

Despite these controversies, Bitcoin continues to attract interest and investment from individuals, institutions, and governments around the world. Its decentralized nature, limited supply, and potential as a hedge against inflation have contributed to its resilience and ongoing development. However, addressing these controversies and challenges will be crucial for Bitcoin's long-term viability and mainstream adoption.

Bitcoin are Security or Asset ?

Bitcoin is often viewed as both a security and an asset, depending on the context and how it is used or perceived:

  1. Security: In the context of investments, some people consider Bitcoin as a security due to its potential for generating returns. Like stocks, bonds, and other investment vehicles, Bitcoin's price can fluctuate, offering opportunities for speculative trading and investment. However, it's important to note that Bitcoin is not a traditional security regulated by financial authorities like stocks or bonds.

  2. Asset: Bitcoin is also widely regarded as a digital asset. It can be bought, sold, and held as an investment or store of value. Its limited supply, decentralized nature, and cryptographic security features contribute to its status as a digital asset with properties similar to gold or other commodities. Many investors view Bitcoin as a hedge against inflation and a diversification tool for their investment portfolios.

Ultimately, whether you consider Bitcoin primarily as a security or an asset depends on your perspective and how you intend to use it. Some people may focus on its investment potential, while others may value its utility as a decentralized digital currency or a hedge against traditional financial systems.

Bitcoin ETF

A Bitcoin exchange-traded fund (ETF) is a type of investment fund that tracks the price of Bitcoin and allows investors to buy and sell shares of the fund on a stock exchange. ETFs are traded like stocks and are designed to provide investors with exposure to the price movements of Bitcoin without the need to directly own or store the cryptocurrency.

The concept of a Bitcoin ETF has been a topic of interest and discussion in the financial industry for several years. Proponents argue that a Bitcoin ETF could provide a more accessible and regulated way for institutional and retail investors to invest in Bitcoin, potentially increasing liquidity and market efficiency. It could also offer a way for investors to gain exposure to Bitcoin without the complexities of owning and managing the cryptocurrency themselves, such as setting up a digital wallet and dealing with security issues.

However, the approval and launch of a Bitcoin ETF in the United States have faced regulatory challenges. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has raised concerns about market manipulation, custody of assets, and investor protection in the cryptocurrency market. As a result, several proposals for Bitcoin ETFs have been either rejected or delayed by the SEC.

Outside the United States, some countries have approved Bitcoin ETFs, allowing investors to access Bitcoin through regulated exchanges. These ETFs vary in their structure and offerings, but they generally aim to provide a way for investors to invest in Bitcoin through traditional financial markets.

The potential launch of a Bitcoin ETF in the United States continues to be a topic of interest and speculation in the cryptocurrency and investment communities. If approved, it could potentially open up Bitcoin investment to a wider range of investors and further integrate cryptocurrencies into the mainstream financial system.